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Panax ginseng
source:Chinese Herbal Plant Genome Database  time:2017-12-15 11:51:02

 

Year

2008

Institution

Nanjing   University of Chinese Medicine, pharmaceutical institute, Nanjing 210046,   China

Material

Jeonra   (Korean), Choongcheong (Korean), and Chinese ginseng

Results

The loading   plot for PC1 showed that the Jeonra and Chinese ginseng roots were mainly   separated by sugar signals and methyl signals but that they were   reverse-correlated. A diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) analysis showed   that the methyl signals are from high molecular weight compounds and that the   sugar signals are either from oligosaccharides or ginsenosides. In subgroup   2, composed of Korean Choongcheong ginseng at different ages, we were able to   see age-dependent transitions in the score plot.

Publication

Kang   J, Lee S, Kang S, et al. NMR-based metabolomics approach for the   differentiation of ginseng (Panax ginseng) roots from different origins[J].   Archives of pharmacal research, 2008, 31(3): 330-336.

 



Year

2012

Institution

School   of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Cai Lun Lu   1200, Shanghai 201203, China

Material

Chinese   white ginseng and red ginseng

Results

Together with ginsenoside   Rg3, a nitrogen-containing component and ginsenoside 20(R)-Rh1 were detected   as characteristic components of red ginseng, whereas malonyl ginsenoside   Rb1/isomer and malonyl ginsenoside Rg1/isomer were found to be characteristic   components of white ginseng. Post-harvest handling procedures for white   ginseng and processing procedures for red ginseng should be standardized   using the identified characteristic components as chemical markers to ensure   the consistent quality and consequently the efficacy of white ginseng and red   ginseng.

Publication

Zhang H M, Li   S L, Zhang H, et al. Holistic quality evaluation of commercial white and red   ginseng using a UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS-based metabolomics approach[J]. Journal of   pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 2012, 62: 258-273.


 

Year

2013

Institution

Department   of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal   Science, RDA, Eumseong 369-873, Korea

Material

Ginsengs   cultivated in Korea, China, and Japan.

Results

The chemical markers   accountable for such variations were identified through a PCA loadings plot, tentatively   identified by RRLC-QTOF/MS and partially verified by available reference standards.   The classification result can be used to identify P. ginseng origin.

Publication

Lee D Y, Kim J   K, Shrestha S, et al. Quality evaluation of Panax ginseng roots using a rapid   resolution LC-QTOF/MS-based metabolomics approach[J]. Molecules, 2013,   18(12): 14849-14861.

 



Year

2014

Institution

Department   of Pharmaceutical Analysis & Metabolomics, Jiangsu Province Academy of Traditional   Chinese Medicine and Jiangsu Branch of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences,   Nanjing, PR China

Material

leaves   of P. ginseng (LPG) and P. quinquefolius (LPQ).

Results

Totally, 86   components were identified from these two kinds of leaf samples, in which 9   ginsenosides could be regarded as the characteristic chemical markers for thediscrimination   of LPG from LPQ.

Publication

Mao Q, Bai M,   Xu J D, et al. Discrimination of leaves of Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius   by ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole/time-of-flight   mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach[J]. Journal of pharmaceutical   and biomedical analysis, 2014, 97: 129-140.



Year

2014

Institution

State Key   Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau Institute for   Applied Research in Medicine and Health, Macau University of Science and   Technology, Macau, China

Material

Whole root, rhizome,   main root, branch root, and fibrous root of Panax notoginseng.

Results

Multivariate   analysis of the metabolite profile further suggested 32 saponins as potential   markers for the discrimination of different parts of notoginseng.

Publication

Wang   J R, Yau L F, Gao W N, et al. Quantitative comparison and metabolite   profiling of saponins in different parts of the root of Panax notoginseng[J].   Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2014, 62(36): 9024-9034.


 

Year

2015

Institution

School of   Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special   Administrative Region, China

Material

17 Asian and   21 American ginseng samples.

Results

A total of 40   peaks were detected. Among them, six were positively identified, and all of   the remainder were tentatively identified. According to statistical results,   ginsenosides Rf, Rb2 and Rc together with their isomers and derivatives were   more likely to be present in Asian ginsengs, whereas ginsenoside Rb1,   pseudoginsenoside F11 and ginsenoside Rd together with their isomers and   derivatives tended to be present in American ginsengs. For Asian ginsengs, ginsenoside   Ra3 and 20-β-D-glucopyranosyl-ginsenoside-Rf were more likely to be present   in forest samples, whereas contents of floralquinquenoside B, ginsenosides Ro   and Rc, and zingibroside R1 were higher in sun-dried ginsengs. For American   ginseng, wild samples often had more of the notoginsenosides R1 and Rw2 and   less of the ginsenosides Rd, Rd isomer and 20 (S)-Rg3 than cultivated   samples.

Publication

Chen Y, Zhao   Z, Chen H, et al. Chemical differentiation and quality evaluation of   commercial Asian and American ginsengs based on a UHPLC–QTOF/MS/MS   metabolomics approach[J]. Phytochemical analysis, 2015, 26(2): 145-160.


 

Year

2016

Institution

Wan State Key   Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical   Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao, P.R.   China.

Material

Panax ginseng   (Asian ginseng), Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax notoginseng   (notoginseng)

Results

Panax herbs   derived from three species possess obviously diverse chemical characteristics   of volatile organic

compounds, principal   component analysis, and partial least squared discriminant analysis.   According to their VOC profiles, 49 tested samples could be clearly  differentiated according to species.

Publication

Chen X J, Qiu   J F, Wang Y T, et al. Discrimination of three Panax species based on   differences in volatile organic compounds using a static headspace   GC-MS-based metabolomics approach[J]. The American journal of Chinese   medicine, 2016, 44(03): 663-676.

 



Year

2016

Institution

College of   Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea

Material

60 ginseng   samples from Korea and China

Results

NMR-based   metabolomics well distinguished geographical authenticity of Panax ginseng.

OPLS-DA model   showed clear discrimination between Korean and Chinese samples.

Mixing   proportion estimation model that achieved good predictability was   constructed.

Our method and   estimation model can also be applied to other herbal plants as well.

Publication

Nguyen H T,   Lee D K, Choi Y G, et al. A 1 H NMR-based metabolomics approach to evaluate   the geographical authenticity of herbal medicine and its application in   building a model effectively assessing the mixing proportion of intentional   admixtures: A case study of Panax ginseng: Metabolomics for the authenticity   of herbal medicine[J]. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis,   2016, 124: 120-128.

 



Year

2016

Institution

Shanghai   Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National   Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute   of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Haike Road 501, Shanghai   201203, China

Material

Five different   parts (root, leaf, flower bud, berry, and seed) of Panax ginseng.

Results

164 compounds   were characterized, and 11 robust biomarkers enabling the differentiation   among root, leaf, flower bud, and berry, were discovered by removing those   structurally unstable and possibly processing-related ones.

Publication

Qiu   S, Yang W, Yao C, et al. Nontargeted metabolomic analysis and   “commercial-homophyletic” comparison-induced biomarkers verification for the   systematic chemical differentiation of five different parts of Panax   ginseng[J]. Journal of Chromatography A, 2016, 1453: 78-87.

 

 



Year

2016

Institution

State Key   Laboratory Breeding Base-Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology,   Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, P. R. China

Material

Roots of Panax   ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, and Panax notoginseng.

Results

Ginsenoside   detection, Localization of ginsenosides in root tissue of Panax species, differentiation of Panax species and Potential chemical   markers and their relative quantification.

Publication

Wang   S, Bai H, Cai Z, et al. MALDI imaging for the localization of saponins in   root tissues and rapid differentiation of three Panax herbs[J].   Electrophoresis, 2016, 37(13): 1956-1966.

 


 

Year

2017

Institution

Key Laboratory   of Plant Ecology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China

Material

Roots, lateral   roots, stems, petioles and leaves of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius.

Results

Altogether 149   primary compounds and 10 ginsenosides were identified from main roots,   lateral roots, stems, petioles and leaves in P. ginseng and P.   quinquefolius. The ginsenosides content was dependent on main roots and   lateral roots energy metabolism, whereas independent of leaves and petiole   photosynthesis during ginsenosides accumulation. When tow species were compared,   the results indicated that high rates of C assimilation to C accumulation are   closely associated with ginsenosides accumulation in P. ginseng main roots and   P. quinquefolius lateral roots, respectively.

Publication

Liu   J, Liu Y, Wang Y, et al. The integration of GC–MS and LC–MS to assay the metabolomics   profiling in Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius reveals a tissue-and   species-specific connectivity of primary metabolites and ginsenosides   accumulation[J]. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 2017,   135: 176-185.